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Diversity Dictionary

To make a submission or revision to the dictionary, please use this form or feel free to email diversity@tamu.edu. Thank you for helping keep this resource current and relevant. This page was updated August 24, 2017.

A - BC - DE - F - GH - I - J - K - LM - NO - P - Q - R - S - TU - V - W - XYZ 
 

A

Ableism: Prejudice and/or discrimination against people with mental or physical disabilities. Adapted from: Griffin, P., Peters, M. L., & Smith, R. M. (2007). Ableism Curriculum Design. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 335-358). New York: Routledge.

Active Racism: Actions which have as their stated or explicit goal the maintenance of the system of racism and the oppression of those in the targeted racial groups. People who participate in active racism advocate the continued subjugation of members of the targeted groups and protection of "the rights" of members of the agent group. These goals are often supported by a belief in the inferiority of People of Color and the superiority of white people, culture, and values. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts I - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Affirmative Action: Actions or range of programs intended to overcome the effects of past or present discrimination practices, or policies or other barriers to equal opportunities that have been historically denied to traditionally disadvantaged groups such as people of color and women. Source: Rabe, J. (2001). Equality, Affirmative Action and Justice. Germany: Books on Demand.

Affinity Group: A group of people who share interests, issues, and a common bond or background, and offer support for each other. These groups can be formed between friends, or people from the same community, workplace or organization. Source: Work and Family Researchers Network. (2014). Definition(s) of Affinity Groups. In Work and Family Glossary. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from https://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/glossary/a/affinity-groups-definitions

African American: 1. An ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to West and sub-Saharan Africa. Many African Americans also have European and/or Native American ancestors. 2. Refers to Black individuals living in the United States with African ancestry. 3. Refers to individuals of African heritage living in the United States having similar experiences, culture heritage and ancestry of former slaves. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 163). Embrace Publications. Ohio University. (n.d.). Diversity Dictionary. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.ohio.edu/orgs/one/dd.html

Ageism: Discrimination of individuals based on their age, i.e. of the elderly based on the notion that they are incapable of performing certain functions such as driving, or of the young based on the notion that they are immature and therefore incapable of performing certain tasks. Adapted from: Love, B. J., & Phillips, K. J. (2007). Ageism and Adultism. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 359-377). New York: Routledge.

Agnostic: Someone who neither believes nor disbelieves in the existence of a deity;  the view that human reason is incapable of providing sufficient rational grounds to justify either the belief that a deity exists or the belief that a deity does not exist. Adapted from: Rowe, W. L. (1998). Agnosticism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge.

Ally: An individual that supports the struggles of a group; not part of the group him/herself. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Antisemitism (Anti-Semitism): "Semitic" originally referred to a family of languages that included Hebrew. But it came to be applied directly to hatred of the Jews. Antisemitism is the systematic discrimination against denigration, or oppression of Jews, Judaism, and the cultural, intellectual, and religious heritage of the Jewish people. Adapted from: Adams, M., & Hahn D'errico, K. (2007). Antisemitism and Anti-Jewish Oppression Curriculum Design. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 249-254). New York: Routledge.

Anti-[S]emitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti[-S]emitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities … such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity. Anti-Semitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for "why things go wrong." It is expressed in speech, writing, visual forms and action, and employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits. Adapted from: U.S. Department of State. (2007, February 8). “Working Definition” of Anti-Semitism. In Archive - U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 2, 2015, from http://2001-2009.state.gov/g/drl/rls/56589.htm

Arab American: Refers to immigrants (and their descendents) from the Arabic-speaking countries of the Middle East and North Africa including the members of the Arab League ranging from Morocco in the west to Iraq in the east (this includes Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen). Despite the diversity among these countries, they share a common historical experience, linguistic and cultural background, and political tradition that make them a distinct ethnic group. Adapted from: Kayyali, R. A. (2006, July 1). The People Perceived as a Threat to Security: Arab Americans Since September 11. In Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/people-perceived-threat-security-arab-americans-september-11. Nigem, E. T. (1986). Arab Americans: Migration, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics. International Migration Review, 20(3), 629-649.

Asian American: Refers to individuals living in the United States with Asian ancestry. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 164). Embrace Publications.

AsianCrit Theory: An analytical framework, based in Critical Race Theory, used for examining and understanding the ways in which racism affects the lives of Asian Americans in the United States. Source:  Museus, S. D. (2013). Asian American Students in Higher Education (pp. 19-28). New York: Routledge.

Atheist: The rejection of belief in the existence of deities. Adapted from:  Nielsen, Kai (2013). "Atheism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 9, 2014. Edwards, Paul (2005) [1967]. Atheism. In The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1 (2nd ed.).New York:  MacMillan Reference USA.

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B

Bias: An inclination or preference either for or against an individual or group that interferes with impartial judgment. Source: 101 Ways to Combat Prejudice: Developing a Common Language. 2014). In Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved June 4, 2014, from: http://archive.adl.org/prejudice/prejudice_terms.html

Bigotry: An unreasonable or irrational attachment to negative stereotypes and prejudices. Source: 101 Ways to Combat Prejudice: Developing a Common Language. (2014). In Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved June 4, 2014, from http://archive.adl.org/prejudice/prejudice_terms.html

Bisexual: A person emotionally, physically, and/or sexually attracted to members of the same sex, as well as members of the opposite sex. Adapted from: Green, E. R., & Peterson, E. N. (2006). LGBTTSQI Terminology. In Trans-Academics.org. Retrieved August 24, 2017 from the archived site.

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C

Campus Climate: 1. Current attitudes, behaviors and standards of faculty, staff, administrators and students concerning the level of respect for individual needs, abilities and potential. 2. The institutional climate for diversity can be conceptualized as a product of various elements that include the historical (such as the institution’s history of access and exclusion), structural (include institutional characteristics such as size, control, selectivity, and racial composition of the college), perceptual (including the ideology of the institutions, institutional commitments to minority concerns and support for minority programs, the intent of the institution, perceptions of racial and interracial activity behavior on campus), and behavioral. Perceptions of the campus climate for diversity vary substantially by ethnic/racial group, reflecting student, faculty, staff, and administrators background characteristics and actual experiences across institutions. Source:  University of California Office of the President. (2014). What is campus climate? Why does it matter?  In Campus Climate Study. Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://campusclimate.ucop.edu/what-is-campus-climate/. Adapted from: Hurtado, S. (1994). The institutional climate for talented Latino students. Research in Higher Education, 35(1), 21-41.

Christian Privilege: Christian privilege is the system of advantages bestowed upon Christians in some societies. This privilege arises out of the presumption of Christian belief as a social norm, leading to the exclusion of secular individuals and members of other religions through institutional religious discrimination as well as through neglect of outsider's cultural and religious practice and heritage. Adapted from: Blumenfeld, W. J. (2006). Christian Privilege and the Promotion of "Secular" and Not-So "Secular" Mainline Christianity in Public Schooling and in the Larger Society. Equity and Excellence in Education, 39(3), 195-210.

Cisgender: Cisgender is a term used to describe people who, for the most part, identify as the gender they were assigned at birth. For example, if a doctor said “it’s a boy!” when you were born, and you identify as a man, then you could be described as cisgender. Source: Basic Rights Oregon. (2011, October 9). Trans 101: Cisgender. In Basic Rights Oregon. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from http://www.transstudent.org/definitions

Civil Rights: Personal liberties that belong to an individual, owing to his or her status as a citizen or resident of a particular country or community. Source: Group, G. (1997). Civil Rights. In West's Encyclopedia of American Law (2nd ed.). Eagan, MN: West Group Publishing.

Class: 1. Relative social rank in terms of income, wealth, status, and/or power. 2. Category or division based on economic status; members of a class are theoretically assumed to possess similar cultural, political and economic characteristics and principles. Adapted from: Leondar-Wright, B., & Yeskel, F. (2007). Classism Curriculum Design. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 308-333). New York: Routledge.

Classism: The institutional, cultural, and individual set of practices and beliefs that assign differential value to people according to their socio-economic class; and an economic system which creates excessive inequality and causes basic human needs to go unmet. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 13D: Definitions of Levels of Classism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Collusion: Thinking and acting in ways which support the system of oppression. White people can actively collude by joining groups which advocate white supremacy. All people can collude by telling racist jokes, discriminating against a Person of Color, or remaining silent when observing a racist incident or remark. We believe that both Whites and People of Color can collude with racism through their attitudes, beliefs, and actions. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts II - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Critical Race Feminism (CRF): An analytical framework that stems from several legal traditions including Critical Race Theory. CRF is anti-essentialist, arguing for a deeper understanding of the lives of women of color based on the multiplicity of their identities. CRF also emphasizes and integrates the ways in which race and gender function together to structure the lives of women of color. Source: Mertens, D. M., & Ginsberg, P. E. (Eds.). (2009). The Handbook of Social Research Ethics (pp. 59-60). London: Sage.

Critical Race Theory: Critical race theory (CRT) is an academic discipline focused upon the critical examination of society and culture and the intersections of race, law, and power. Adapted from: Yosso, T. J. (2005, March). Whose Culture has Capital? A Critical Race Theory Discussion of Community Cultural Wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69-91.; Gordon, L. R. (Spring 1999). A Short History of the 'Critical' in Critical Race Theory. "A Short History of the 'Critical' in Critical Race Theory". American Philosophy Association Newsletter.

Cross-dressing: The act of dressing in clothes typically associated with another gender. This may be the extent of the gender-bending behavior, or it may be one step on a path of changing sex or gender. The words transvestite and transvestism have been used in the past to describe this activity or interest. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 9B: Answers to Gender and Sexuality Definitions Quiz. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Culture: Aspects of a social environment that are used to communicate values such as what is considered good and desirable, right and wrong, normal, different, appropriate, or attractive. The means through which society creates context from which individuals derive meaning and prescriptions for successful living within that culture (language and speech patterns, orientation toward time, standards of beauty, holidays that are celebrated, images of a "normal family," etc.). Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Cultural Competence: “Cultural competence is having an awareness of one’s own cultural identity and views about difference, and the ability to learn and build on the varying cultural and community norms of students and their families. It is the ability to understand the within-group differences that make each student unique, while celebrating the between-group variations that make our country a tapestry.”. Source: National Education Association. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from http://www.nea.org/home/39783.htm

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D

Diaspora: A historical dispersion of a group of people deriving from similar origins, i.e. the African Diaspora includes African Americans, Africans, Caribbeans, Afro-Russians, Black Brazilians, Afro-Latinos etc. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 164). Embrace Publications.

Disability: An individual is considered to have a disability if they have a physical or mental condition that limits the ability to perform a major life activity such as walking, breathing, seeing, hearing, thinking, or working. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 14B: Definition, Types, and Examples of Disabilities. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Disadvantaged: 1. A historically oppressed group having less than sufficient financial, political and social resources to meet all of basic needs.  2. A group characterized by disproportionate economic, social, and political disadvantages.
Source: University of Baltimore. (2014). Diversity and Culture Dictionary. In Diversity and Culture Center. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.ubalt.edu/campus-life/diversity-and-culture-center/diversity-dictionary.cfm

Discrimination: "The unequal allocation of goods, resources, and services, and the limitation of access to full participation in society based on individual membership in a particular social group; reinforced by law, policy, and cultural norms that allow for differential treatment on the basis of identity." Retrieved August 24, 2017, from National Conference for Community and Justice, Resources, Social Justice Definitions, https://nccj.org/resources/social-justice-definitions

Diversity: Refers to the variety of group experiences that result from the social structure of society. Diversity is a broad concept that includes differences in society’s opportunities, the shaping of social institutions by different social factors, the formation of group and individual identity, and the processes of social change. This includes race, class, gender, age, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, language, and region residence, among others. Adapted from : Andersen, Margaret, and Howard Taylor. Sociology: Understanding a Diverse Society. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomas Wadsworth, 2008. 11. Print.

Dominant culture: The cultural group that controls the major aspects of social power, values, and norms within a society. Source: Garnets, L., & Kimmel, D. C. (Eds.). (1993). Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences (p. 605). New York: Columbia University Press.

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E

Emigrant: One who leaves his/her country of origin to reside in a foreign country. Source: University of Baltimore. (2014). Diversity and Culture Dictionary. In Diversity and Culture Center. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.ubalt.edu/campus-life/diversity-and-culture-center/diversity-dictionary.cfm

Essentialism: The practice of categorizing a group based on an artificial social construction that imparts an "essence" of that group, which homogenizes the group and effaces individuality and difference. Adapted from:  Garnets, L., & Kimmel, D. C. (Eds.). (1993). Psychological Perspectives on Lesbian and Gay Male Experiences (p. 606). New York: Columbia University Press

Ethnicity: A social construct that divides people into smaller social groups based on characteristics such as shared sense of group membership, history, customs and values, behavioral patterns, language, religion, shared political history, and ancestral geographical base. Examples of different ethnic groups are Cape Verdean, Haitian, African American (Black); Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese (Asian); Cherokee, Mohawk, Navajo (Native American); Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican (Latino/a); Polish, Irish, and French (White). Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts I - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Ethnocentrism: A practice of unconsciously or consciously privileging a certain ethnic group over others. This involves judging other groups by the values of one's own group. Adapted from: Adams, M. (2007). Religious Oppression. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 249-254). New York: Routledge.

Eurocentrism: The practice of consciously or unconsciously privileging the culture of Europe over other cultures. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 166). Embrace Publications.

European American: An individual living in the United States with European ancestry. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 166). Embrace Publications.

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F

Feminism: The valuing of women, and the belief in and advocacy for social, political, and economic equality and liberation for both women and men. Feminism questions and challenges patriarchal social values and structures that serve to enforce and maintain men's dominance and women's subordination. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

Free Speech: Right, as stated in the 1st and 14th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content. Source: Freedom of speech. (2013). In Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/218543/freedom-of-speech

Fundamentalism: Movement with strict view of doctrine: a religious or political movement based on a literal interpretation of and strict adherence to doctrine, especially as a return to former principles. Adapted from: Adams, M. (2007). Religious Oppression. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 249-254). New York: Routledge.

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G

Gay: Pertaining to male homosexuality. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Heterosexism and Curriculum Design. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Gender: 1) System of sexual classification based on the social construction of the categories "men" and "women," as opposed to sex which is based on biological and physical differences which form the categories "male" and "female."  2) A social identity usually conflated with biological sex in a binary system that presumes one has either male and masculine characteristics and behavior, or female and feminine characteristics and behavior. In addition to being a major social status experienced by individuals, this is also “a social institution” that helps humans organize their lives. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 166). Embrace Publications. Adapted from: Goodman, D. and Schapiro, S. (1997). Sexism Curriculum Design. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed., pp. 111-129). New York: Routledge.
Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 10A: Transgender Oppression Definitions. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Gender Expression: “Gender expression” refers to the ways in which we each manifest masculinity or femininity. It is usually an extension of our “gender identity,” our innate sense of being male or female. Each of us expresses a particular gender every day – by the way we style our hair, select our clothing, or even the way we stand. Our appearance, speech, behavior, movement, and other factors signal that we feel – and wish to be understood – as masculine or feminine, or as a man or a woman. Source: Gill Foundation. (2014). Gender Expression . In Gill Foundation. Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://gillfoundation.org/grants/gender-expression-toolkit/gender-expression/

Gender Identity: A person's sense of being male or female. Adapted from:  Griffin, P. (2007). Sexism, Heterosexism, and Transgender Oppression. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 167-172). New York: Routledge.

Glass ceiling: A term that describes the maximum position and salary some claim minorities and women are allowed to reach without any chances of further promotion or advancement within an employment scenario. Adapted from:  Federal Glass Ceiling Commission. (1995, March). Good For Business: Making Full Use of the Nation's Capital. In U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved June 6, 2013, from http://www.dol.gov/dol/aboutdol/history/reich/reports/ceiling.pdf

Global competency: The knowledge, skills, and abilities that help people from cross disciplinary domains to understand global events and respond to them effectively. As described by Reimers (2009), Global competency has three interdependent dimensions. The first approach considers cultural differences and a willingness to engage those differences (an important component of which is empathy for people with other cultural identities, an interest in seeking understanding of various civilizations and their histories, and the ability to see potential differences as opportunities for constructive and respectful interactions). Some argue that there is also an ethical dimension of global competency which includes a commitment to basic equality and the rights of all persons as well as an obligation to uphold those rights. The second dimension of global competency is the pragmatic aspect, which is the ability to speak, understand, and think in different languages. The third dimension involves extensive knowledge of world history, geography, and the global aspects of common issues such as: health care, climate change, economics, politics, education, among other issues. Adapted from: Reimers, F. M. (2009, September). Leading for Global Competency. Teaching for the 21st Century, 67(1).

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H

Harassment: Unwanted conduct with the purpose or effect of violating the dignity of a person and of creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment based on their race, color, sex, sexual orientation, religion, national origin, disability, and/or age, among other things. Adapted from: Addison, N. (2007). Religious Discrimination and Hatred Law (p. 104). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge-Cavendish.

Hate: Intense hostility and aversion usually deriving from fear, anger, or sense of injury: extreme dislike or antipathy. Source:  Hate . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hate

Hate Incident: Behavior which constitutes an expression of hostility against the person or property of another because of his/her difference. Such incidents include actions motivated by bias, but do not meet the necessary elements required to prove a crime. Adapted From: Association of Chief Police Officers. (2005, March). Hate Crime: Delivering a Quality Service - Good Practice and Tactical Guidance. Retrieved June 6, 2013, from http://www.bedfordshire.police.uk/pdf/tacticalguidance.pdf

Heterosexism: 1. Social structures and practices which serve to elevate and enforce heterosexuality while subordinating or suppressing other forms of sexuality. 2. Societal, cultural, institutional, and individual beliefs and practices that assume that heterosexuality is the only natural, normal, acceptable sexual orientation. Adapted from:  Griffin, P. (2007). Sexism, Heterosexism, and Transgender Oppression. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 167-172). New York: Routledge.
Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 164). Embrace Publications.

Heterosexual: A person primarily emotionally, physically, and/or sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex. Adapted from: Sullivan, N. (2003). A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory (p. 119). New York: New York University Press.

Heterosexual Privilege: Those benefits and advantages heterosexuals or those perceived to be heterosexual, receive in a heterosexist culture. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Hispanic: Hispanic origin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person’s parents or ancestors before arriving in the United States. People who identify as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be any race. Source: Retrieved on 4/5/2017 from the United States Census Bureau https://www.census.gov/topics/population/hispanic-origin.html

Homophobia: The irrational fear of people who are believed to be lesbian, gay or bisexual. Source: Griffin, P., Hahn D'errico, K., Harro, B., & Schiff, T. (2007). Heterosexism Curriculum Design. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 195-218). New York: Routledge.

Homosexual: (Gay man/lesbian) A person primarily emotionally, physically and/or sexually attracted to members of the same sex. Adapted from: Green, E. R., & Peterson, E. N. (2006). LGBTTSQI Terminology. In Trans-Academics.org. Retrieved August 24, 2017 from the archived site.

Horizontal Hostility: The result of people of targeted groups believing, acting on, or enforcing the dominant system of discrimination and oppression. Horizontal hostility can occur between members of the same group or between members of different, targeted groups. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

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I

Identity: The distinctive characteristic belonging to any given individual (self-identity), or shared by all members of a particular social category or group (such as national or cultural identity). Source: Rummens, J. (1993). Personal Identity and Social Structure in Sint Maarten/Saint Martin: A Plural Identities Approach. Doctoral Dissertation/Thesis: York University, Toronto, ON.

Ignorance: Lacking knowledge or comprehension of the thing specified:  Resulting from or showing lack of knowledge. Adapted from:  Ignorant . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ignorant

Immigrant: Commonly determined by nationality and place of birth, immigrate refers to any individual who has ever migrated from their country of birth to their current country of residence, regardless of legal status. The term immigrant is often used interchangeably with the term foreign-born. Adapted from: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development . (2007). Migration - Stocks of Immigrants. In OECD Factbook - Economic, Environmenal and Social Statistics. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from http://www.oecd.org/publications/factbook/38336539.pdf

Implicit Bias: Implicit biases are judgments and behaviors that are generally influenced by stereotypic social portrayals of different social groups or individuals or favorable or unfavorable past experiences. While implicit biases can operate consciously, these judgments and behaviors can also exist without (1) intention (i.e., are involuntary and uncontrollable), and (2) conscious awareness and thus may be nonconscious. Adapted from:  Rudman, L. A. (2004). Social justice in our minds, homes, and society: The nature, causes, and consequences of implicit bias. Social Justice Research,17(2), 129-142.

In The Closet: The closet has become a central category for grasping the history and social dynamics of gay life. This concept is intended to capture social patterns of secrecy and sexual self-management that structure the lives of ‘gay individuals’ in societies organized around a norm of heterosexuality. The concept of the closet is linked, perhaps inseparable from, the notion of ‘coming out’. The latter category refers to those who have 1) not accepted their sexuality or; 2) has not disclosed their sexuality to their friends, families and  acquaintances. Adapted from: Seidman,, S., Meeks, C., & Traschen, F. (1999). Beyond the Closet? The Changing Social Meaning of Homosexuality in the United States. Sexualities, 2(1), 9-34.

Indigenous Peoples: Individuals who identify as indigenous generally meet or have experienced  several of the following characteristics: 1) self-identification with indigenous peoples at the individual level and accepted by the indigenous community as their member; 2) historical continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies; 3) strong link to territories and surrounding natural resources; 3) strong link to distinct social, economic or political systems; 4) distinct language, culture, and beliefs; 5) have been a part of a  non-dominant groups of society; and 6) resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities. Source: United Nations Permanent Forum of Indigenous Issues. (n.d.). Indigenous Peoples, Indigenous Voices - Factsheet. In United Nations. Retrieved June 12, 2014, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/5session_factsheet1.pdf

Inclusive: Open to everyone: not limited to certain people. Source: Inclusive . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/inclusive

Institutional racism: The network of institutional structures policies, and practices that create advantages and benefits for Whites, and discrimination, oppression, and disadvantage for people from targeted racial groups. The advantages created for Whites are often invisible to them, or are considered "rights" available to everyone as opposed to "privileges" awarded to only some individuals and groups. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Internalized Domination: When members of the agent group accept their group's socially superior status as normal and deserved. Adapted from: Bell, L. (2007). Theoretical Foundations for Social Justice Education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., pp. 11-13). New York: Routledge.

Internalized Oppression: The result of people of targeted groups believing, acting on, or enforcing the dominant system of beliefs about themselves and members of their own group. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Internalized Subordination: When members of the target social group have adopted the agent group's ideology and accept their subordinate status as deserved, natural and inevitable. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Intersectionality (Intersectionalism): The study of intersections between forms or systems of oppression, domination or discrimination. Adapted From: Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford law review, 1241-1299.

Intolerance: Refusal to accept differences: unwillingness or refusal to accept people who are different from you, or views, beliefs, or lifestyles that differ from your own. Source:  Intolerance . (2004). In Encarta Webster's Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) Bloomsbury USA.

Islamophobia: Unfounded hostility towards Muslims, and therefore fear or dislike of all or most Muslims Source: University of California, Berkeley. (n.d.). Defining "Islamophobia". In Center for Race and Gender. Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://crg.berkeley.edu/content/islamophobia/defining-islamophobia

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J

Jew(s): The term Jew is derived from Judea, one of the ancient kingdoms of the Hebrew people. Since the scattering of the Jewish people, after the destruction of Judea and Israel, the Jews have thought of themselves as a people, a religion, a culture, joined together by a common history. Whether they assimilated or remained separate, Jews in medieval Europe were "the other" on the basis of their non-Christian religious practice and culture; in modern Europe they were "the other" on the basis of racial hierarchies (Aryan, Serb, and Semite). Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

K

L

Latino/a: 1. Often short for 'latinoamericano,’ Latino/Latina strictly refers to the people who come from or have heritage relating to the territories in the Americas colonized by Latin nations, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, whose languages are derived from Latin and now live in the United Sates. 2. A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Adapted from: Oquendo, A. R. (1995). Re-Imagining the Latino/a Race. Harvard BlackLetter Law Journal, 12, 96-97. Source: National Center for Education Statistics. (n.d.). Definitions for New Race and Ethnicity Categories. In Institute of Education Sciences. 

LatCrit Theory: An analytical framework, based in Critical Race Theory, used for examining and understanding the ways in which race and racism affects the lives of  Latinos in the United States. Adapted from: Valdés, F. (n.d.). LatCrit: A Conceptual Overview. In LatCrit - Latina and Latino Critical Legal Theory Inc.. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from http://latcrit.org/content/about/conceptual-overview/

Lesbian: Female homosexual. A woman who is romantically and sexually attracted to another woman. Adapted from: Johns Hopkins University. (n.d.). LGBT Glossary. In LGBTQ Life. Retrieved June 8, 2014, from http://web.jhu.edu/LGBTQ/glossary.html

Linguicism: Refers to discrimination based particularly on language. Language oppression is often tied to discrimination based on race, ethnicity, and/or class. Adapted from:  Schniedewind, N., & Davidson, E. (1998). Open Minds to Equality: A Source Book of Learning Activities to Affirm Diversity and Promote Equality (2nd ed.) Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Skutnabb-Kongas, J. & Cummings, J. (1998). Minority Education: From Shame to Struggles. Clevedon, UK: Multicultural Matters.

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M

Minority: Term used to describe a group that represents a relatively smaller percentage of the overall population of a nation/state/ continent etc. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

Misogyny: The hatred or dislike of women or girls. Misogyny can be manifested in numerous ways, including sexual discrimination, denigration of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification of women. Adapted From: Code, L. (2000). Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories (p. 346). New York: Routledge. Kramarae, C. (2000). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women (pp. 1374-1377). New York: Routledge.

Multiculturalism:The practice of acknowledging and respecting the various cultures, religions, races, ethnicities, attitudes and opinions within an environment. Source: Davis, T., & Harrison, L. M. (2013). Advancing Social Justice: Tools, Pedagogies, and Strategies to Transform Your Campus (p. 2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Muslim: Is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the Quran. Adapted from: Sultan, S. N., Ali, Y., & Smith, J. I. (2007). The Qurʼan and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad: Selections Annotated & Explained (p. 21). Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths.

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N

National Origin: System of classification based on nation from which a person originates, regardless of the nation in which he/she currently resides. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

Nationality: The state of belonging to a particular country or being a citizen of a particular nation. Source: Nationality . (n.d.). In Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary.

Native American: A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North American or who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation of community recognition. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

Neocolonialization: The survival of the colonial system in spite of formal recognition of political independence in former colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas which became victims of indirect and subtle form of domination by political, economic, social, military, or technical forces, generally disguised as humanitarian help or aid. The mechanisms of neo-colonialism are designed to serve the interest of continued economic and political dependence of former colonies by the former European colonial powers. Adapted from: Ghosh, P. (2013). International Relations (3rd ed.) Dheli, India: PHI Learning Private Limited. Melkote, R. S. and Rao, A. (1992). International Relations. New York: Sterling Publishers Private Unlimited.

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O

Oppression: A systemic social phenomenon based on the perceived and real differences among social groups that involve ideological domination, institutional control and the promulgation of the oppressor's ideology, logic system, and culture to the oppressed group. The result is the exploitation of one social group by another for the benefit of the oppressor group. Source: Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

Oriental: Relating to or deriving from the language, traditions, or cultures of the peoples of Asian nations in the region designated as "the Orient," or "the East," by Europeans. This term is conspicuously Eurocentric as "the East" is constructed as being opposed to a fixed reference point, "the West," or Western Europe. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

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P

Pan-Africanism: 1. Describes the theory relating to the desire to educate all peoples of the African Diaspora of their common plight and of the connections between them, e.g. a problem faced by one group affects the lives of other groups as well. 2. Theory relating to the desire to link all African countries across the continent through a common government, language, ideology, or belief. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

Passive racism: Beliefs, attitudes, and actions that contribute to the maintenance of racism, without openly advocating violence or oppression. The conscious and unconscious maintenance of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that support the system of racism, racial prejudice and racial dominance. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts I - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Patriarchy: Social system in which men dominate: a social system in which men are regarded as the authority within the family and society, and in which power and possessions are passed on from father to son, among men more generally, and to women. Source: Soukhanov, Anne. "Patriarchy." Encarta World English Dictionary. London: St. Martin's Press, 1999. p. 1323. Print.

People of color: A term used to describe all non-white racial or ethnic groups. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications.

Power (Social Power): Access to resources that enhance one’s chances of getting what one needs in order to lead a comfortable, productive and safe life. Retrieved August 24, 2017, from National Conference for Community and Justice, Resources, Social Justice Definitions, https://nccj.org/resources/social-justice-definitions

Prejudice: Refers to beliefs, thoughts, feelings, and attitudes that someone holds about a group. A prejudice is not based on experience; instead, it is a prejudgment, originating outside of actual experience. Source: OpenStax College - Rice University. (2013). Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination. In Introduction to Sociology (pp. 230-231). Houston, TX: Rice University.

Privilege: 1. Power and advantages benefiting a group derived from the historical oppression and exploitation of other groups. 2. Unearned access to resources only readily available to some people as a result of their group membership. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 169). Embrace Publications; Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.

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Q

Queer: 1. An umbrella term which embraces a matrix of sexual preferences, orientations, and habits of the not-exclusively- heterosexual-and-monogamous majority. Queer includes lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transpeople, intersex persons, the radical sex communities, and many other sexually transgressive (underworld) explorers. 2. This term is sometimes used as a sexual orientation label instead of ‘bisexual’ as a way of acknowledging that there are more than two genders to be attracted to, or as a way of stating a nonheterosexual orientation without having to state who they are attracted to. 3. A reclaimed word that was formerly used solely as a slur but that has been semantically overturned by members of the maligned group, who use it as a term of defiant pride. ‘Queer’ is an example of a word undergoing this process. For decades ‘queer’ was used solely as a derogatory adjective for gays and lesbians, but in the 1980s the term began to be used by gay and lesbian activists as a term of self-identification. Eventually, it came to be used as an umbrella term that included gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered people. Nevertheless, a sizable percentage of people to whom this term might apply still hold ‘queer’ to be a hateful insult, and its use by heterosexuals is often considered offensive. Similarly, other reclaimed words are usually offensive to the in-group when used by outsiders, so extreme caution must be taken concerning their use when one is not a member of the group. Adapted from: Green, E. R., & Peterson, E. N. (2006). LGBTTSQI Terminology. In Trans-Academics.org. Retrieved August 24, 2017 from the archived site.

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R

Race: A social construct that artificially divides people into distinct groups based on characteristics such as a physical appearance (particularly color) ancestral heritage, cultural affiliations, cultural history, ethnic classification, and the social, economic, and political needs of a society at a given period of time. Racial categories subsume ethnic groups. Source: Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts I - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Racism: The systematic subordination of members of targeted racial groups who have relatively little social power in the United States (Blacks, Latino/as, Native Americans, and Asians), by the members of the agent racial group who have relatively more social power (Whites). This subordination is supported by the actions of the individuals, cultural norms and values, and the institutional structures and practices of society. Adapted from: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 7D: Definitions. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Religion: A system of beliefs, values, and practices concerning what a person holds to be sacred or spiritually significant. Source: OpenStax College - Rice University. (2013). Introduction to Religion. In Introduction to Sociology (pp. 336). Houston, TX: Rice University.

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S

Scapegoating: The action of blaming an individual or group for something when, in reality, there is no one person or group responsible for the problem. It targets another person or group as responsible for problems in society because of that person's group identity. Souce: Anti-Defamation League. (2014). 101 Ways to Combat Prejudice: Developing a Common Language. In Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved June 4, 2014, from http://archive.adl.org/prejudice/prejudice_terms.html

Sex: Refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female, or intersex  (i.e., atypical combinations of features that usually distinguish male from female). There are a number of indicators of biological sex, including sex chromosomes, internal reproductive organs, and external genitalia. Source: American Psychological Association. (2011, February). Definition of Terms: Sex, Gender, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation . In APA LGBT Resources and Publications. Retrieved June 16, 2014, from  http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf

Sexism: Refers to the social, cultural, political, and educational subordination of one sex by another and can also refer to the unequal distribution of power and resources between men and women, both because of gender. Adapted from: Rothenberg, P. S. (2004). Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study (6th ed., pp. 162-163). New York: Worth Publishers.

Social Constructionism: A perception of an individual, group, or idea that is "constructed" through cultural and social practice, but appears to be "natural," or "the way things are." For example, the idea that women "naturally" like to do housework is a social construction because this idea appears "natural" due to its historical repetition, rather than it being "true" in any essential sense. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications

Social Justice: Involves a vision of society in which distribution of resources is equitable and all members are physically and psychologically safe and secure, the goal of which is full and equal participation of all groups in society that is mutually shaped to meet their needs. Also involves social actors who have a sense of their own agency as well as a sense of social responsibility toward and with others, their society, and the broader world. Source: Bell, L. (2007). Theoretical Foundations for Social Justice. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Stereotype: A preconceived or oversimplified generalization about an entire group of people without regard for their individual differences. While often negative, stereotypes may also be complimentary. Yet even positive stereotypes can have a negative impact and can feed into prejudice. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

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T

Tolerance: Acceptance and open-mindedness to different practices, attitudes, and cultures; does not necessarily mean agreement with the differences. Source: Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World (5th ed., p. 168). Embrace Publications

Transgender: An umbrella term that may include transsexuals, cross dressers, drag queens, drag kings, butch lesbians, and any other people transgressing the socially constructed confines of gender. This is an identity that must be claimed as one's own; it should not be imposed upon people. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Transphobia: The irrational fear of those who are gender diverse and/or the inability to deal with gender ambiguity. Source: Adapted from: Green, E. R., & Peterson, E. N. (2006). LGBTTSQI Terminology. In Trans-Academics.org. Retrieved August 24, 2017 from the archived site.

Transsexual: Someone who wants to, intends to, or has begun to pursue some physical change to his/her body, in an effort to align the physical body with one's gender identity, and identifies with this term. This is an identity that must be claimed as one's own; it should not be imposed upon people. FtM (female to male or female toward male): born female but see themselves as partly to fully male. MtF (male to female or male toward female): born male but see themselves as partly to fully female. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Tribal Critical Race Theory (TribalCrit): An analytical framework, based in Critical Race Theory, used for examining and understanding the ways in which race, racism, and colonization affects the lives of indigenous people in the United States. Adapted from: McKinley Jones Brayboy, B. (2005, December). Toward a Tribal Critical Race Theory in Education. The Urban Review, 37(5), 425-446.

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V

Violence: Intense, turbulent, or furious and often destructive action or force: vehement feeling or expression: exertion of force so as to injure or abuse.
Adapted from:  Violence . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/violence

W

White privilege: The concrete benefits of access to resources and social rewards and the power to shape the norms and values of society which whites receive, unconsciously or consciously, by virtue of their skin color in a racist society. Examples include the ability to be unaware of race, the ability to live and work among people of the same racial group as their own, the security of not being pulled over by the police for being a suspicious person, the expectation that they speak for themselves and not their entire race, the ability to have a job hire or promotion attributed to their skills and background and not affirmative action. Source: Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (2007). Appendix 6B: Definitions of General Concepts II - Racism. In Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Whiteness: An ever changing social category connected to the racial category “white” or the group of people who share a common set of phenotypes (skin color, hair texture, facial features) and can trace their genealogical roots to Europe. Whiteness as a social identity has also been linked to power, privilege and dominance resulting from a long history of sociopolitical and historical factors that have established white as a hegemonic racial category. Adapted from: Gallagher, C. A. (2007). White. In J. R. Feagin & H. Vera (Eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations (pp. 9-14). New York: Springer.

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X - Y - Z

Xenophobe: A person unduly fearful or contemptuous of that which is foreign, especially of strangers or foreign peoples. Adapted from:  Xenophobe . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/xenophobe

Xenophobia: Fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign. Source: Xenophobia . (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/xenophobia

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